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Crossing Borders

Crossing Borders

Teknovatøren is a semi-scientific magazine published by the master students at TIK Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo. Teknovatøren seeks to illuminate issues on technological development, innovation and knowledge production.

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Dear readers,

Europe is facing many challenges, but during the past year, one particular event has been on everyone’s mind: migration. Not since World War II have we experienced such a flow of migrants crossing Europe’s outer border in a hope of a better life, away from war, deprivation and misery. With the current momentum in politics, news reporting and overall attention from the public, continuing with business as usual at Teknovatøren felt disconnected from reality. The urge to comment on our contemporaries became inevitable. Therefore, issue #11 of Teknovatøren will focus on crossing borders, both historically but mainly regarding on what is happening now in and around Europe.Dear reader,

The European migration crisis has already been covered extensively in other media. However, we want to illuminate this from within the spirit of Teknovatøren. Technology enables, supports and also hinders people in accessing information, thus preventing them from arriving to Europe. The vulnerability in conflict areas demands that new solutions rapidly evolve and come to those who need them the most. We are reporting on some of these new innovations and inventions which are being both used and modified by refugees and migrants as well as governments and smugglers. There has also been a focus on first-hand content with the starting-point in two interviews: one with a foreign aid PhD-scholar and another with a Syrian refugee. We also problematize beyond the immediately obvious inventions and solutions. By having an Science and Technology Studies (STS) perspective, this allows us study how technological innovations and science affect our understanding of the ongoing European migration crisis.

This deep-dive into a complex, ongoing crisis has been demanding to our writers. Without the work carried out by our writers, designers and especially the editorial staff (Sindre Rådahl Kirchhoff, Stian Larsen, Tobias Kaasa Fossheim and Marc Verbenkov) who all went above and beyond of what was expected from them, this issue simply wouldn’t have been possible to complete.

It is my true pleasure to welcome you, the reader, to Teknovatøren #11, Crossing borders!

Jarl G. Falkenborn
Head of Editorial


3. EDITORIAL | Jarl Falkenborn
4. PROLOGUE | Jarl Falkenborn, Sindre Rådahl Kirchhoff & Stian Fossum Larsen
7. LIMINAL LIVING |Silje Sahlén
15. CLIMATE REFUGEES | Per Edvard Sundeman
17. INFOGRAPHIC| Teknovatøren
19. THE “ONE STOP SHOP” APPROACH| Stian Fossum Larsen
21. IMMIGRATION AND INNOVATION | Sindre Rådahl Kirchhoff
23. MOBILE MAPPING| Jarl Falkenborn
27. REFUGEE OPEN WARE | Jarl Falkenborn
29. WRITING ON THE WALL| Robin Reistad Fiske
31. CONFESSIONS OF A LECTURER | Hilde Reinertsen
33. EPILOGUE | Jarl Falkenborn, Sindre Rådahl Kirchhoff & Stian Fossum Larsen
35. THREE FROM TIK | Teknovatøren


Jarl Falkenborn
Head of Editorial
Tobias Kaasa Fossheim
Head of Creative
Sindre Rådahl Kirchhoff
Head of Distribution
Inger-Johanne Hansen
Head of Digital Media
Anne-Guro Hommo
Head of Finance
Oskar Åslund
Board Member

Jarl Falkenborn, Stian Fossum Larsen, Sindre Rådahl Kirchhoff and Marc Verbenkov

Layout: Tobias Kaasa Fossheim, Anne-Guro Hommo, Robin Reistad Fiske and Inger
Johanne Hansen.


Jarl Falkenborn, Stian Fossum Larsen, Sindre Rådahl Kirchhoff, Per Sundeman,
Silje Sahlèn, Cyriac George, Anne-Guro Hommo, Robin Reistad Fiske and Hilde

Teknovatøren is published twice a year. This edition is published with funding from Grønt Punkt and the TIK Centre

Issue_10_liten_forsideRead now (pdf)


Dear reader,

This issue of Teknovatøren consists of two parts. The majority of the content revolves around the term human performance, but we have also reserved some pages to celebrate this 10th publication of the magazine.

True to tradition, we have chosen a general theme for this issue and this time we landed on human performance. We are so thrilled in presenting this theme as it has given us a wide platform of possibilities, but at the same me a well defined area of investigaon. Two words with a whole lot of meaning and interpretation is linked to it, human performance is both a glorious and potentially exotic term while at the same time it may be pressure based in the human strive for advancement. We will not give you any definite conclusions but instead several rich, broad and creative perspectives that deserve your attention.

Among the new developments added in this issue are a prologue and an epilogue. The prologue serves as a presentation of the magazine as a whole and further elaborates the topic while giving you some clues as to what to expect in the subsequent articles. The epilogue, on the other hand, tries to pull it all together. However, the intriguing content is located in between.

As already mentioned, this is the 10th issue of Teknovatøren. The 10th! That means five years of hard work and a milestone for the magazine, as for its contributors. In the centrefold you will find a timeline consisting of all issues created so far. We even had a talk with the man responsible for the very fragile outset of Teknovatøren, presented as an informal interview.

Being a five-year jubilee, I feel that this editorial deserve some more written words. Therefore, I will try to communicate my thoughts as editor in two defining words: challenge and gratitude. Continuing the work of Teknovatøren is a huge challenge as It tests us in completely new fields of work. I feel the urge to deliver something new and innovative, but at the same me with a Teknovatøren tradition in mind. That is not an easy task. Still, it is with a huge gratitude I do this work, and I am sure that I am not the only one that feels this way. We build this issue upon an already solid foundation. We owe a huge thanks to all previous contributors for their efforts in the developing this magazine to what it is today. So, thank you all! This issue is dedicated for you people.

It is with huge gratitude I say: enjoy this 10th issue of Teknovatøren, human performance.

Martin Gulseth
Executive editor

Board of Directors

Chairman: Bjørnar Berntsen
Executive Editor: Martin Gulseth
Head of Finance and Sponsors: Ingrid Gulbrandsen
Head of Distribution and Public Relations: Kristina Klakegg
Art Director: Tobias Kaasa Fossheim
Head of Digital Media: Silje Rebecca Morsman


Layout: Tobias Kaasa Fossheim, Anine Havn Andresen, Anna Maria Bjørkhaug, Inger Johanne Hansen and Torgeir Kongshaug.
Photography and artwork: Shutterstock (unless otherwise noted)

Editorial Staff

Kim André Hansen, Robin Reistad Fiske, Kristina Munoz Ledo Klakegg, Oskar Erik Åslund and Anne Guro Hommo. We would like to thank Harald Smedal Stamsø and Kristoffer Lorentsen for their assistance.


Each Issue of Teknovatøren has it’s own board, consisting of students at the TIK Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture.


The chairman provides leadership to the board and ensures that the board is functioning accordingly. This includes organizing board meetings and general meetings, reporting on the board’s activities and securing that all administrative tasks go as planned.

Oscar Åslund

Executive editor

The executive editor is responsible for all editorial operations of the journal. This includes organizing and leading editorial meetings, giving feedback on articles and collecting external contributions, as well as ensuring the quality of the magazine as a whole.

Jarl Falkenborn

Art director

The art director is responsible for the visual profile and lay-out of the journal, either single-handedly or by teamwork with a lay-out group. The art director works closely with the editor on finalizing the journal for printing.

Tobias Kaasa Fossheim

Head of finance and sponsors

The head of finance and sponsors has the executive economic responsibility of the journal. This includes preparation of budgets and accounts, reimbursements, applications for financial funds and communication with sponsors.

Anne Guro Hommo

Head of digital media

The head of digital media is in charge of the web page and social media platforms of the journal. This includes writing and publishing news articles and posts, updating the web page and publishing the journal online, as well as distribution of the Teknovatøren newsletter.

Inger Johanne Hansen

Head of distribution and public relations

The head of distribution and public relations is responsible for promoting and distributing the journal to the outside world. This includes distribution to the University of Oslo campus and to external recipients, as well as communication with the target group of the journal.

Sindre Andreas Rådahl Kirchhoff

issue9coverRead now (PDF)


This issue of Teknovatøren has chosen as its point of departure, the fantastcally broad term civilizaton. In relaton to the previous issue where we looked to the future based on current trends and developments, this issue has taken a diferent approach, centering on historical developments in the hope of understanding what we have come to associate with a civilizaton. We could not have hoped to achieve this without touching upon on some of the traditional themes of this publication, and as such, we are proudly writing ourselves into a civilization of previous issues of Teknovatøren, to which we owe great debt. For what is a civilization if not an entity of which its members is work – ing together in community, not always with one single common interest, but always with the common interest of progress as its driving force?

Every civilization has its challenges and battles to overcome. Present inhabitants of planet earth will perhaps have noticed the challenges of dealing with the climatic problems we humans have created. These issues highlight the global nature of modern civilization: technologies are bringing previously distant inhabitants together in dealing with common problems. As with our technologies, civilization is continually expanding its boundaries, even to the far away corners of our galaxy. Technology, as such, sets the limit for civilization’s extent. It allows us not only to move through time and space, but also to access our own creations in making new worlds and communities online. Our technological artefacts are increasingly integral parts of our daily lives, a fact that may cause many different reactions. It might even challenge our own conception of ourselves as human beings, and question the values with which we associate ourselves, and with our surroundings.

Privacy, efficiency, sustainability, history, energy, government, infrastructure and inhabitants: these are but a selected few of the core elements of any discussion on a civilization, upon which we measure technological development. Civilizaton is a mean for survival, a defense mechanism against both internal and external threats. As such, civilizations are always struggling to survive, legitimizing their existence through its technologies of governing technologies, science and citizens. If we move to close to the sun we might get burned, but if we stay grounded for too long we might be drowned by the rising sea. The power of monitoring and controlling technological development is as challenging as it is essential for the existence of civilization, as we know it.

Choosing a term like civilization as the topic for an interdisciplinary semi-scientific exploration of human (and non-human) technological construction is not the easiest task in the world. We could of course have taken an easier route, limitng ourselves to one specifc civilizaton, the present state of our increasingly global civilizaton, or making a fcttous civilizaton out of current technological developments. We did neither of these things. We could even have limited ourselves to the human race. We did not. Instead we chose the difficult route, where the ins and outs, the past, present, and the possible future of this, our strange corner of humanly measured eternity, is depicted through the technologies that enable us to discuss this very term; civilization.

This is our civilization, and in drawing its boundaries we have attempted to show the diverse, yet strangely connected elements of which it is made. From the earliest stages of technological development to the possibilites of interplan – etary expansion, and some of the lines in between, we have mapped out our territory. Now we invite you to take a journey through it, using one of the oldest technologies we have: writng. Welcome to the civilizaton Teknovatøren!


Magnus Jacobsen
Executive Editor
ESST MA student


Board of directors

Chairman: Kristoffer Lorentsen
Executive Editor: Magnus Jacobsen
Head of Finance: Bjørnar Berntsen
Head of Marketing & Innovation: Mariann Sandbæk
Art Director: Anine Havn Andresen
Head of Digital Media: Harald Smedal Stamsø
Head of Corporate Affairs: Lisa Mehre Ystgaard


Layout: Anine Havn Andresen
Photography and artwork: Shutterstock (unless otherwise noted), Freepik

Editorial staff

Kim André Hansen, Lisa Mehre Ystgaard, Magnus Jacobsen and Henriette B. Johannessen. We thank Harald Smedal Stamsø and Kristoffer Lorentsen for their assistance.

Teknovatøren was founded in 2010 by postgraduate candidate Christian Guttormsen. He established the first board of directors, consisting of five master students from the ESST and TIK programs. In 2011, Teknovatøren published what would be the first semi-scientific journal of science, innovation and technology studies at the University of Oslo. The magazine is supported by the Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture (TIK), and is largely produced by the graduate students at the centre. The faculty are highly supportive of the publication and it has become a unifying link between students and faculty members.


Teknovatøren seeks to be a forum for science, technology and innovation studies, and to increase public knowledge of these diverse fields of studies. Teknovatøren also acts as an important portal for students to exhibit and practice journalistic writing – a style of writing that is scarce in academia.

Furthermore, Teknovatøren seeks to be a social and academic unifier amongst the students, and to unite the field of studies both domestic and abroad.


Teknovatøren strives to be a front runner in the field of university publications. We believe in setting high standards for ourselves, with articles of high quality, a clear editorial line and first-rate graphics and lay-out, as well as an emphasis on innovation and creativity.

We are aware that all activities conducted in society are part of a giant equation. We therefore consider the environmental aspects of everything we do, from the paper we use in printing, to the recycling of packaging. We are pleased to partner with Grønt Punkt Norge, a non-profit organization responsible for financing the recycling of packaging in the Norwegian private sector.

Practical aspects

Teknovatøren is published twice a year, and has a distribution of 900 ex. It is primarily distributed at the University of Oslo, but we also distribute to the private sector, national research institutes and universities abroad. We continuously work on increasing the distribution, both on paper and online.


The TIK administration has been very supportive of the project and is funding parts of the production. Former director of the TIK Centre, Jane Summerton, and professor Olav Wicken have been especially important in supporting the establishment of Teknovatøren.

Grønt Punkt Norge is responsible for a significant part of our funding, and acts as a consulting partner in regards to environmental issues.

As a result of the support and encouragement from all of the above, Teknovatøren was awarded the “Student Publication of the Year” prize in 2013 from the University of Oslo.

Teknovatøren’s statutes are written in Norwegian.

Vedtekter for teknovatøren

Nedtegnet 28.10.2010 på konstituerende generalforsamling. Paragraf 3 og 6 ble henholdsvis konstruert og omdefinert på generalforsamlingen 30.08.2011.

§ 1 – Foreningens navn

Foreningen og tidsskriftet skal gå under navnet Teknovatøren

§ 2 – Foreningens formål

Foreningen har som målsetting å fremme fagfeltet Science and Technology in Society og innovasjonsstudier. TIK-senteret skal frem som en synlig og aktiv aktør på SV-fakultetet og i andre relevante univers. Foreningen ønsker også å gi studentene relevant skrivetrening og ser etter å styrke det sosiale samværet studentene i mellom.

§ 3 – Kvalitetsprofil

Teknovatøren skal strebe etter de følgende målene: være det beste studentmagasinet i Norge, høy kvalitet på det skriftlige materialet, være et moderne og innovativt magasin, innta en klar miljøprofil og holde et profesjonelt miljø.

§ 4 – Medlemskap

De som er tatt opp på masterprogrammet ESST eller TIK ved TIK-senteret og ønsker å bidra, er kvalifisert til å bli tatt opp som et medlem.

§ 5 – Generalforsamling

Generalforsamlingen holdes i januar og august hvert år. Forsamlingen innkalles med minst 7 dagers varsel. I dette møtet behandles styrets beretning, regnskap og budsjett.
Medlemmer kan på eget initiativ ta opp andre saker som er tilknyttet foreningen. Alle medlemmer har stemmerett og kan stille til valg i styret. Generalforsamlingen fatter vedtak ved simpelt flertall. Ved endringer i vedtektene er det et krav om kvalifisert flertall (2/3).
Ekstraordinær generalforsamling kan innkalles hvis minst ¼ av medlemmene krever det, eller på styrets initiativ. Forslag til vedtektsendringer må være i styrets besittelse minst 3 dager før generalforsamling.

§ 6 – Styret

Styret utlyses på generalforsamlingene og skal ha 6 medlemmer fordelt på følgende stillinger: foreningsleder, ansvarlig redaktør, økonomiansvarlig, lay-outansvarlig, kommunikasjonssjef og innovasjonssjef. Ingen person kan besitte flere av stillingene i styret. Stillingene besittes i ett semester med mulighet for gjenvalg.

§ 7 – Disposisjon av økonomiske midler

Foreningens midler skal brukes i henhold til foreningens formål. Det vil stort sett si trykking og drift. Eventuelle overskudd vil bli brukt på sosiale aktiviteter for medlemmene eller overføres til neste år.

§ 8 – Mistillit

Det kan bli erklært mistillit til styret ved kvalifisert flertall. Nyvalg vil da bli foretatt umiddelbart.

§ 9 – Oppløsning

Foreningen kan oppløses ved kvalifisert flertall på to etterfølgende generalforsamlinger. Ved opphør vil midler og eiendeler forvaltes av TIK-senteret.

Cover of the future - issue 8What awaits us in the future? This issue of Teknovatøren tries to answer just that. And is it all good?

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This fall issue of Teknovatøren has the broad overarching theme of what the future will look like. Previous issues of the magazine have centered on themes such as energy, controversies, the apocalypse, and nature – all of which, explicitly or not, look to the future. Here at the TIK centre as well, researchers look to the future of the climate, technology, innovation and knowledge. We at Teknovatøren considered it high time to devote an entire issue to the subject.

As we look to the future, we have to realize that it is intrinsically bound with the present. Our view of both the past and the future is always grounded in what we believe to be the truth, here, today. To think that we could somehow extract ourselves from our present perceptions would be foolish, which is why we have structured most of the articles in this magazine as you would structure ideas in theoretical physics. We start by considering a fact, something certain or proven, and then we analyze, theorize and rationalize further on the topic. This exploratory approach was the only way we could legitimize tackling such an elusive subject as the future.

We know that the temperature of the earth is rising, but are there technologically feasible solutions to change our course? Furthermore, we know that technology is becoming more intimate, and increasingly a given part of our lives, but where will we draw the line between the physical and digital world? Do we want to expose not just our thoughts and opinions, but our fingerprints and DNA to servers under foreign jurisdictions? And we know that the usage of big data can help us map everything from human behavior to the universe itself, but are we really comfortable with the way this data is collected and analyzed? Can we trust the police to properly use this kind of information to predict and prevent crime before it even occurs?

These are just a few of the questions we grapple with in this issue of Teknovatøren, and since every remaining moment of your life from this one and onward resides in the future, you really should come along for the ride.

Vegard Tveito
Executive Editor
TIK MA student


Board of Directors

Chairman: Jonas Archer
Executive Editor: Vegard Tveito
Head of Finance: Bjørnar Berntsen
Head of Marketing & Innovation: Mariann Sandbæk
Art Director: Anine Havn Andresen
Head of Digital Media: Harald Smedal Stamsø


Layout: Anine Havn Andresen, Vegard Tveito and Kim André Hansen
Photography: Shutterstock (unless otherwise noted)


Vegard Tveito, Maria Reinlie, Anine Havn Andresen, Caroline Yakubu, Kim André Hansen, Lise Mehre Ystgaard, Magnus Jakobsen, Karen Melbostad and Henriette B. Johannesen

issue7coverThe Machinery of War

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There is nothing more timeless nor universal than the act of war. From the era of flintlocks and cannons to the days of missiles and killer robots – people have always fought each other. Waging of war has continuously relied on the technological equipment at hand. Serving as groundbreaking accelerators propelling social change and technological advance, arms races has consti- tuted essential driving forces thrusting forth modern progress. The destruc- tive power of nuclear, chemical and biological weaponry has simultaneously changed the very nature of modern warfare. While still struggling with the dis- posing of Cold War nuclear waste, are we ready to face yet another change of scenery; the war going digital and smart?

In this issue of Teknovatøren we twist the Rubik’s cube of warcraft, accentu- ating some of the multiple facets, shades and shapes it takes on. From the smoggy battlefield of air-polluted China to the fragmented scape of cyber warfare, we dive into the universe of combat and cavalry, doom and destruc- tion. By encountering the innovative and technological aspects of war, we address how the interplay between man and machine is shaped through and by human conflict.

Every art of creation is first an act of destruction. The machinery of war slams together violence and productivity – forcing work and waste into a relationship of near seamless contiguity. Technological advance poses alluring opportu- nities as well as dangerous potentials for demolition. The problem occurs when we are not capable to discern progressive potential from destructive power. Information has now, more than ever, become a potent weapon in the technological warfare. WikiLeaks, Heartbleed and Edward Snowden are examples illustrating that information technology devices are vulnerable ma- chineries that can easily be made subject to manipulation and exploitation – and virtually start leaking. The spreading of confidential information drove Snowden into a lawless limbo last year. This year he is nominated for the No- bel Peace Prize. Hero or traitor? The machinery of war may say to warp our conceptualizations of right and wrong.

Through the TIK Master program we are repeatedly being admonished that technological artifacts seldom evolve in a vacuum. Neither does the war ma- chine. Acknowledging the human role and responsibility in steering techno- logical progress requires constant awareness of the flaws and frailty the ma- chine represent. Staying alert to the pitfalls of production can thus guide us to better distinguish between what constitute creative destruction and what may lead to destructive creation. After all – we are all participants in the technological World of Warcraft. We better start considering how to make the next move.

Inga Blæsterdalen
Executive editor
TIK MA Student


Forside for Teknovatøren issue 6Subduing nature

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God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.”

These famous words are from the bible’s first chapter, Genesis. But even before biblical times, humans have made claims subduing nature to their will; the animals for food, the soil for development, the waters for travel and the minerals for technological improvements. While nature seemed resistant at first, we have now entered the anthropocene, the age where our footprints have left a visible scar on planet earth.

“Subduing Nature” addresses some of the issues mankind has met, or will meet in the near future, in how and why we are at war with nature. We keep the fire throughout the magazine, asking ourselves such questions as: If we can change gender to the point that it becomes natural, will it change our perception of what gender is? Our lives are fragile and short, but what if we finally found the fountain of youth, would we then be able to live forever, and would we want to? Will our increasing needs for energy make us chose controversial paths and explore the unknown? And when speaking of the unknown: Does our existence limit itself to planet earth, or can we colonize and subdue the wild and harsh landscapes of other planets? Can we create life?

Teknovatøren won this year’s price for the best student publication at the University of Oslo. This is not only a confirmation of the hard work students at the TIK-center has put into creating this magazine; it is also a testimony to the content we write about. We write about the controversial and the topical. We write across different disciplines, and trough different lenses, and we raise questions about the very essence of our existence. Through previous publications, we have explored both the creative and destructive paths of our relationship with nature. In this issue we will see how we interact in our struggle for subduing it.

Thomas Rye Eriksen
Executive Editor


Board of Directors

Chairman: Eirik Lorentzen
Executive Editor: Thomas Rye Eriksen
Head of Finance: Ulrika Marie Eriksson
Head og Marketing & Innovation: Joachim Bråthen
Art Director: Nicolai Hennum Wendt
Head of Digital Media: Elise Bjørn-Hansen


Layout: Nicolai Hennum Wendt and Joachim Bråthen
Photography: Olga Devyatkova, Maria Stokke, Merete Rosenberg, Thomas Torheim og Bård Ivar Basmo
Logo Design: Ulrikke Nordseth
Editors: Lene Davidsen, Inga Blæsterdalen, Jonas Archer, Thomas Rye Eriksen, Renate Olaussen, Vegard Tveito, William Cunningham, Nicolai Hennum Wendt and Elisabeth Cassidy Svennevik